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Exercise 

Fitness is not about being better than someone else… It is being better than you used to be. We do not stop exercising because we grow old - we grow old because we stop exercising.  

Exercise offers an impressive array of health benefits. It helps prevent heart disease and type 2 diabetes; lowers the risk for high blood pressure, colon cancer, and breast cancer; and helps relieve insomnia, anxiety, and depression. In addition, it may help ward off cognitive decline and dementia. Plus, some studies have shown that engaging in a program of regular exercise improved cognitive function in people who already had memory problems. Exercise may be particularly advantageous for people who carry the APOE4 gene variant, which makes people more susceptible to Alzheimer's.

 

+ Exercise, physical activity and fitness: What's the difference?

  • Physical activity is simply any bodily movement performed by the muscles that expend energy. All activity and steps count toward your health.
  • Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned and structured with the purpose of improving or maintaining physical fitness or health.
  • Fitness is the ability to perform activity at a moderate to vigorous level of intensity without tiring easily. Fitness depends on your age, sex, body size and genetic background. But it's clear that regular physical activity improves your fitness level.

+ What are the Health Benefits of Exercise?

  • Help with weight management.. Along with diet, exercise plays an important role in controlling your weight and preventing obesity. To maintain your weight, the calories you eat and drink must equal the energy you burn. To lose weight, you must use more calories than you eat and drink.
  • Reduce your risk of heart diseases. Exercise strengthens your heart and improves your circulation. The increased blood flow raises the oxygen levels in your body. This helps lower your risk of heart diseases such as high cholesterol, coronary artery disease, and heart attack. Regular exercise can also lower your blood pressure and triglyceride levels.
  • Help your body manage blood sugar and insulin levels. Exercise can lower your blood sugar level and help your insulin work better. This can cut down your risk for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. And if you already have one of those diseases, exercise can help you to manage it.
  • Help you quit smoking. Exercise may make it easier to quit smoking by reducing your cravings and withdrawal symptoms. It can also help limit the weight you might gain when you stop smoking.
  • Improve your mental health and mood. During exercise, your body releases chemicals that can improve your mood and make you feel more relaxed. This can help you deal with stress and reduce your risk of depression.
  • Help keep your thinking, learning, and judgment skills sharp as you age. Exercise stimulates your body to release proteins and other chemicals that improve the structure and function of your brain.
  • Strengthen your bones and muscles. Regular exercise can help kids and teens build strong bones. Later in life, it can also slow the loss of bone density that comes with age. Doing muscle-strengthening activities can help you increase or maintain your muscle mass and strength.
  • Reduce your risk of some cancers, including colon, breast , uterine, and lung cancer.
  • Reduce your risk of falls. For older adults, research shows that doing balance and muscle-strengthening activities in addition to moderate-intensity aerobic activity can help reduce your risk of falling.
  • Improve your sleep. Exercise can help you to fall asleep faster and stay asleep longer.
  • Improve your sexual health. Regular exercise may lower the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men. For those who already have ED, exercise may help improve their sexual function. In women, exercise may increase sexual arousal.
  • Increase your chances of living longer. Studies show that physical activity can reduce your risk of dying early from the leading causes of death, like heart disease and some cancers.

+ How can I Make Exercise a part of my Regular Routine?

  • Make everyday activities more active. Even small changes can help. You can take the stairs instead of the elevator. Walk down the hall to a coworker's office instead of sending an email. Wash the car yourself. Park further away from your destination.
  • Be active with friends and family. Having a workout partner may make you more likely to enjoy exercise. You can also plan social activities that involve exercise. You might also consider joining an exercise group or class, such as a dance class, hiking club, or volleyball team.
  • Keep track of your progress. Keeping a log of your activity or using a fitness tracker may help you set goals and stay motivated.
  • Make exercise more fun. Try listening to music or watching TV while you exercise. Also, mix things up a little bit - if you stick with just one type of exercise, you might get bored. Try doing a combination of activities.
  • Find activities that you can do even when the weather is bad.You can walk in a mall, climb stairs, or work out in a gym even if the weather stops you from exercising outside.

+ What are the Benefits of Exercise?

Regular exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health. It has many benefits, including improving your overall health and fitness, and reducing your risk for many chronic diseases. There are many different types of exercise; it is important that you pick the right types for you. Most people benefit from a combination of them.

+ Endurance, or aerobic?

Activities increase your breathing and heart rate. They keep your heart, lungs, and circulatory system healthy and improve your overall fitness. Examples include brisk walking, jogging, swimming, and biking.

+ Strength, or resistance training

Exercises make your muscles stronger. Some examples are lifting weights and using a resistance band

+ Balance

Exercises can make it easier to walk on uneven surfaces and help prevent falls. To improve your balance, try tai chi or exercises like standing on one leg.

+ Flexibility

Exercises stretch your muscles and can help your body stay limber. Yoga and doing various stretches can make you more flexible.

+ Types of Exercise and Effect on Longevity and General Health

  • Aerobic exercise training enhances mitochondrial
  • “oxidative enzymes’ capacity and coincides with improvements to insulin sensitivity with age.
  • High-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) involves repeating short bouts of activity at near-maximal intensity, which rapidly and robustly increases aerobic capacity, mitochondrial respiration, and insulin sensitivity in both young and ageing adults.
  • Resistance training (RT) reverses sarcopenia ( muscle wasting) and age related declines in myosin heavy-chain gene transcripts and synthesis rates of muscle proteins , but a comprehensive gene transcripts and proteome comparison with aerobic training has not been performed.

+ What does Resistance Training Lead To?

  • Reversal of “sarcopenia” (muscle wasting) with increase of muscle proteins
  • Minimal increase of cardio-metabolic benefit.
  • Minimal Enhancement of insulin sensitivity

+ What does HIIT (High Intensity Interval Training) Involve?

Short bouts of activity at near-maximal intensity, rapidly and robustly causes:

  • Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity
  • Improved Aerobic capacity & Stamina
  • Enhanced energy production by Mitochondria=feeling well and upbeat.
  • Enhanced production of Endorphins=Increased pain relief; improved tolerance to pain.
  • Improved Cardio-Metabolic health parameters in both your and ageing adults.
  • Combined training which involves both aerobic and resistance training leads to:
  • Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity
  • Improved Aerobic capacity & Stamina
  • Enhanced energy production by Mitochondria=feeling well and upbeat.
  • Enhanced production of Endorphins=Increased pain relief; improved tolerance to pain.
  • Improved Cardio-Metabolic health parameters in both your and ageing adults.