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Toxicity

Aging is a major risk factor for many pathological conditions including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, stroke and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (PD). The occurrence of these conditions, which are major causes of death in both industrialized and developing countries, has risen markedly in the last century, largely due to the increase in life expectancy as well as urbanization. In addition to changes in lifestyle, urbanization is associated with environmental degradation. Indeed, exposure to environmental toxins has been identified as a substantial causal risk factor for the majority of these age‐dependent diseases.